I believe that two great influence of Protestant reformation are Martin Luther and John Calvin. People followed Luther and turned their backs on the Roman Church since being a Lutheran for them is one of their way to keep their wealth but they will still be receiving salvation without paying any homage to Rome. People followed Luther to act against the church and this protests made Lutheranism one way to attack the Holy empire during the mid-16th century.He made certain acts against the church since he discovered many immoral acts of priest and cardinals during his trip to St.Peter, Rome. The bottom line is this: Luther told people exactly what they want to hear. Luther appeared as an alternative to the Roman Church. Whereas the Roman Church appealed to men and women as members of a group (ex. members of the Church), Lutheranism meant that faith was now something individual, and this would have profound consequences. Meanwhile Calvinism by John Calvin made also many realizations to his followers.2. In what ways did the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment challenge the intellectual and political status quo in early modern Europe?From such revolutions made possible by the people stated above, I think these became a great challenge for the political status quo in early modern Europe since it paved way for revolts and separation from the Roma Catholic Church. being dependent on faith alone will not be made possible and such thing as salvation is gained not only through serving the Roman Catholic Church. the two proponents of Protestant Reformation opened the minds of people about the changes needed that will paved way for them to a more wealthier life.While Lutheranism spread widely in Germany and Scandinavia, Calvinism made inroads across Europe. In general, Calvin produced an organization unmatched by any other Protestant faith at the time. The Institutes spelled out faith and practice in fine detail. Tight discipline within each cell, or synod, held the entire system together. Calvinist ministers traveled throughout Europe winning adherents and organizing them into new cells. From the city of Geneva flowed an endless wave of pamphlets, books and sermons whose purpose was to educate the Calvinist congregation.By 1564, the year of Calvin’s death, there were more than a million French Calvinists or Huguenots, Scotland had been won over to Calvinism, and the religion also found a home in England, the Low Countries and Hungary. Reference: http://www. historyguide. org/earlymod/lecture3c. html 6. What did the Russian and Qing Empires have in common, and how did these common features affect the relationship between the two? Russian and Qing Empires both dealt with the problem of expansion with Northeastern Asia. this established territorial boundaries and defined rules of commerce for the two powerful empires.Both empire was ruled by great leaders like Peter the Great who ruled and was credited with the dragging of Russia during the medieval times. From great leadership reforms were made to fully improve the commerce and trade industry of both empires and changes in modernizing the army and centralizing the government. Reference: http://www. historylearningsite. co. uk/peter_the_great. htm Both the Qing and the Tokugawa governments were in decline by 1800. What reasons lay behind the decline of each government?The Qing Dynasty and the Tokugawa Shogunate were two of the most powerful and influential governments in Asia that ruled for centuries in China and Japan respectively. In spite of the historical evidence regarding the strict policies and longevity of the two governments’ rule, both administrations deteriorated as the 19th century began. The fall of these governments were caused by several factors. Large scale revolts, shocking population growth, unchanging economic conditions, international stress and trounces in wars throughout the 1800s all contributed to the weakening and eventual demise of the Qing dynasty in 1911 (Elliott, 2000).Various ideas are connected to these events. However, they are all rooted to two different causes: problems within the dynasty and natural disasters. These proved too much for the economy and the governments to handle (Elliott, 2000). The downfall of the Tokugawa Shogunate came as a result of the caste system. The rigid quality of this system of belief created destructive forces and undertakings (Bolitho, 1980). The taxes collected from the lower social classes diminished gradually in value, which led to clashes between destitute samurai tax collectors and affluent peasants.These minor domestic disturbances progressively became huge rebellions. However, these squabbles never shook the Tokugawa reign. The intervention of foreign forces and the alliance of more powerful feudal leaders were accounted for the official ending of the Tokugawa era (Bolitho, 1980). Superpowers of 19th century East Asia savored a lengthy rule, giving them ample time to constitute policies. The ruler’s will to the people, conversely the policies only led to the social, economic and political conflicts which caused the undermining and obliteration of time-tested governments.Moreover, the rise and fall of the Qing Dynasty and Tokugawa Shogunate proved to the entire world that empires, no matter how strong, always crumble. 8. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain rather than in continental Europe or the United States? Tracing the roots of Industrial Revolution I said to be hard, tough and complicated since its origin is from Britain and not from Europe or United States which is more industrialized and innovated in the present times.Industrial revolution is said to be brought about by an outgrown institutional and social change when feudalism ended in Britain right after the English War of the 1`7th century. Britain became the birthplace of Industrial revolution because of the presence of large domestic markets. In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded amongst them. One website traces eight main causes that led to the Industrial Revolution. [1. ] Agricultural revolutionWealthy landowners bought the village farmers’ lands and made them tenant farmers to made them move to the country. The landowners made more efficient crops which led to less starvation, less people dying, and more people. [2. ]Population boom Since there was more food going around, less people died of starvation, and people could have more babies, creating a population boom. [3. ]Natural resources Britain had rich coal deposits, iron ore, and fast flowing rivers, which made it possible for factories to attain energy, trains to run, and for the industry to grow. [4. ] New technologiesScientists knew that industrialization would bring wealth to Britain, so British scientist shifted their research on new technologies that would help the process of industrialization. [5. ] New transport systems Engineers began to make new transport systems that allowed cheaper, and easier ways for people to ship their goods and travel. [6. ] Rural to urban migration Since travel was became cheap, tenant farmers decided to move to the cities for jobs. [7. ] Market for goods Around the world, people heard of the cheap, mass-produced goods Britain was making. British-made goods were high in demand.[8. ]Money = capital = power Since everyone wanted British-made goods, this created the wealth Britain wanted, making it more powerful than it was. What exactly is meant by the Industrial Revolution? What were the economic changes that revolutionized manufacturing in the eighteenth century and led to the factory system? Industrial Revolution began in Britain and transformed both economic and social life of the people. It began around mid eighteen hundreds and influenced Europe and the rest of the world. It is defined as the shift from agrarian revolution to machine transformation of labors.It involves more efficient ways of doing things, increased agricultural productivity, the harnessing of plentiful labor and the expanded role of financial institutions that began in the second half of the century that would transform society. Economic changes happen because more machines took place and replace the actions done by a simple and common laborer. More machines are invented and develop to take the duty of man and made factories more faster in producing products and goods which resulted to higher economic rates and incomes for industries. http://www. historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a. html How did the technological innovations of the Industrial Revolution change societies in the industrialized countries? The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it changed — revolutionized — the productive capacity of England, Europe and United States. But the revolution was something more than just new machines, smoke-belching factories, increased productivity and an increased standard of living. It was a revolution which transformed English, European, and American society down to its very roots.Like the Reformation or the French Revolution, no one was left unaffected. Everyone was touched in one way or another — peasant and noble, parent and child, artisan and captain of industry. The Industrial Revolution serves as a key to the origins of modern Western society. As Harold Perkin has observed, “the Industrial Revolution was no mere sequence of changes in industrial techniques and production, but a social revolution with social causes as well as profound social effects” [The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780-1880 (1969)]. Industrial revolution made a major change in the society of industrialized countries.More efficient and advanced way of living is given to people. Before the revolution, people lives in smaller village and contented working as craftsmen or farmers. In fact In fact, three quarters of Britain’s population lived in the countryside, and farming was the predominant occupation (Porter). With the advent of industrialization, however, everything changed. The new enclosure laws—which required that all grazing grounds be fenced in at the owner’s expense—had left many poor farmers bankrupt and unemployed, and machines capable of huge outputs made small hand weavers redundant.As a result, there were many people who were forced to work at the new factories. This required them to move to towns and cities so that they could be close to their new jobs. It also meant that they made less money for working longer hours. Add to this the higher living expenses due to urbanization, and one can easily see that many families’ resources would be extremely stretched. Industrial Revolution made Europe a more industrialized country and left a mark on the society. Life changed drastically, classes are shifted, wealth of the people increased and nations began assuming national identities.One website discussed the Effects of the Revolution on the Rest of the World: • The quick industrialization across Europe during the 19th century led to a great increase in goods produced as well as a demand for raw materials (Haberman). • This demand, coupled with increased nationalist pride, led nations to seek colonies abroad in which to produce and trade goods (Haberman). • The main expansion for the European colonial powers occurred in Africa. By 1914, the entire continent with the exception of Liberia and Abyssinia were controlled by European nations (Haberman).• England also took control of India and Hong Kong during this period of expansion. By the beginning of WWI, England had an empire which stretched across every continent in the world. Vast amounts of natural resources were extracted from these colonies, which aided the British industrial effort but left many of the nations bankrupt (Haberman). • In short, industrialization in Europe had far reaching consequences for the rest of the world. While it made Britain the ultimate power for over a century, it can be argued that its rule over the world caused conflict and internal strife which continues to this day.