Nature and Causes of Police Corruption

Chapter-One1.1. Introduction and background of the research studyCops corruption is a form of cops misconduct in which police officers seek personal gain, such as money or profession development, through the abuse of power, for example by accepting kickbacks in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an examination or arrest. Authorities officers in Bangladesh, nearly without exception, are corrupt and will do simply as much to make some money as any other bad Bengali. Keep in mind that lots of cops officers choose this job, since it puts them in a position where they can squeeze some money out of their fellow compatriots.Over the past couple of years, fantastic strides have actually taken place in the police profession.To start with, lots of cops agencies have prevented hiring prospects who have low ethical standards and have actually identified those onboard staff members early in their professions who might compromise the department’s integrity. In addition, research study has found brand-new approaches of testing prospects for their psychological propensity to act ethically.However, unethical conduct by the nation’s law enforcement officer continues to take place in departments big and small. Research into police corruption provides some understanding of the phenomenon in the hope of rooting out this habits that serves to weaken the total legitimacy of law enforcement.Theories on the role of society in law enforcement, the negative influence of an officer’s department, and a person’s own natural tendency to engage in unethical behavior have been offered as explanations of police corruption. In Bangladesh most of the people is peace loving but they can’t live in peace because of corruption in every major department here. People are facing so many troubles in their everyday life by police corruption when they go to them or they are arrested by police.Police are using several ways to corrupt people. People are also identifying the causes and reacting as they influenced by the police personnel. It is called that police of our country is one of the most corrupted department of our government. In this research paper the present corruption nature of our police and how people react about them, the causes of police corruption are mainly observed.Any discussion on police will be incomplete without a word about the origin and development of this institution. Originally, the word ‘police’ was used in a wider sense to connote the management of internal economy and the enforcement of governmental regulation in a particular country. With the passage of time, the term ‘police’ began to use in a much narrower sense to connote an agency of the State to maintain law and order and enforce the regulation of the code of Criminal Procedure.In the present context of Bangladesh, the term ‘police’ connotes a body of civil servants whose primary duties preservation of order, prevention and detention of crimes and enforcement of law. As pointed out by Ernest Fround, police functions generally relate to promoting public welfare by restraining and regulating the use of property and liberty of persons.Police force has been in existence in this country in one form or another from the very ancient time. The Mughal rulers in India also had a well organized police force for maintaining law and order in society. The police system during the Mughal period undoubtedly suited to the needs of a simple homogenous agricultural community, but it could not withstand the strains of political disorder and, therefore, with the decline of Mughal Empire, the system of police administration also collapsed.The British Government in India retained the system of policing prevailing in each province with modification. According to the regulation of 1816, village headmen were made ex officio heads of police also. They apprehend offender and forwarded them to District authorities. The Police Commission of 1860 recommended continuance of the prevailing system of rural policing with minor changes. The Police Act 1861, was enacted to ” reorganize the police and to make it more effective instrument for the prevention and detention of crime” as laid down in the preamble of the Act.The Government of Lord Curzon appointed another Commission called the Police Commission of 1902 to suggest measures for reform in police working. Surprisingly, the Commission instead of suggesting any measures for reform in the existing rural police highly commended the prevailing set-up. Though our country is now independent, it conveys the rules of Police Act 1861.1.2. Statement of the problem of the studyIn Bangladesh illegal police surveillance has greatly shaped the police image and use of excessive force, rape and killing custody and other questionable practices raised serious questions about the legitimacy of the police. In our country, a police officer makes a prayer for ‘remand’ stating that the accused is involved in a cognizable offence and for the purpose of interrogation ‘remand’ is necessary.In sub section(2) of section 167 though it is not mentioned that ‘remand’ can be allowed for the purpose of interrogation, at present, the practice is that an accused is taken on ‘remand’ only for the purpose of interrogation or for extorting information from the accused through interrogation.There is no proper guideline as to when such prayer should be accepted and when rejected by the magistrate and this legal lacuna gives both the police officers and magistrates power to abuse the same. Police officers being motivated or dictated by the executive organ or out of their personal conflict or aggrandizement seek unreasonable remand under section 167 of the Code.Thus police get the easy opportunity for torturing people through remand. Article 35(4) of the constitution states that no person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. So the provisions of the Cr. P.C. under section 167 are in direct contrast with the provisions of the constitution. This Cr. P.C. was passed by the British government back in 1898 when there is no fundamental rights as we have now in our constitution.The Indian National Police Commission of 1977 which made meaningful effort to reform the police system had the following to say on the control element “The crux of police reform in our country today is to secure professional independence for the police to function truly and efficiently as an impartial agent of the law of the land and at the same time to enable the government to oversee police performance to ensure its conformity to law. But Bangladesh does not take any effort to reform her police department.The major problem for the police in our country is the lack of public confidence in police activities. It has been argued that public confidence in police is integral to social order, economic development and sound economic processes. Citizens view the quality of police service as an indicator of the quality of the government. Police who are untrustworthy create fear and anxiety.1.3. Objectives of the studyThis research is mainly built for academic purpose. Its aim is to see what the perception of people about police corruption is. How they react to it and what reasons they identified for police corruption in Bangladesh.Specifically, the objectives of this research are as below:I. To see the nature of contemporary police corruption in Bangladesh. II. To find out the causes of police corruption.
III. To see the patterns of police corruption.