Nowadays, water pollution is a big problem in Vietnam and many researchers have been studying it. Accordingly, there are two main reasons of water pollution in Vietnam. The weakness in industrial wastewater management is the main cause of water pollution in Vietnam. Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from their plants into canals, rivers, and lakes. Most of the enterprises don’t have any wastewater treatment system and many industrial zones don’t have a central wastewater treatment plant.Industrial wastewater is directly discharged into canals, lakes, ponds, and rivers, causing serious pollution of surface water. Besides this, the growing number of factories along the river and their untreated waste disposal is causing a lot of diseases and intestinal sicknesses among people living in the vicinity of the river. The water pollution is clearly visible, and residents can see a tarred black color and smell a pungent odor from the river. Another cause of water pollution in Vietnam is the lack of awareness among citizens.Every day people generate a lot of trash, and they throw it directly into canals, rivers, and ponds.