The level of poverty, causes and effects on the Educational sector as well as academic performance of students within the Nigeria is worrisome. Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in Nigeria.The number of Nigerians living in poverty is continually increasing; hence its effects on students performance. This research focuses on the causes and effects of poverty on the academic performance of pupils in primary school, using primary school within Pankshin Local Government as a case study.To create a comprehensive overview of the study and data collection, both primary and secondary methods were used. The primary method includes the questionnaire while secondary method includes books, articles, results and academics performance of students between 2005 – 2011.Questionnaires were distributed among three (3) randomly chosen primary schools, and the returned questionnaires were collated, analysed and interpreted. The results showed that majority of students in primary schools studied have parents who are living below poverty line subsequently, this affects their performance in school as a result of lack of income.Lastly, it was observed that some students dropout as a result of inability to pay tuition fees. This research hereby recommends that Government should team up with private bodies to make as well implement policies to reduce poverty. Finally, teachers are advised to inculcate teaching techniques that will help students understand the subject easily in order to perform well.